This provided well-known marks such as "Bavaria," "England," "Nippon," - indicating the country of manufacture.
Derby marks are many but most follow the same theme, with a cypher surmounted by a crown.
To the collector the mark has greater importance, for not only can he trace the manufacturer of any marked object, but he can also ascertain the approximate date of manufacture and in several cases the exact year of production, particularly in the case of 19th and 20th century wares from the leading firms which employed private dating systems.
With the increasing use of ceramic marks in the 19th century, a large proportion of English pottery and porcelain can be accurately identified and often dated.
In the case of the larger firms the mark also has publicity value and shows the buyer that the object was made by a long-established firm with a reputation to uphold; such clear name- marks as Minton, Wedgwood, Royal Crown Derby and Royal Worcester are typical examples.'England':- Inclusion of the word 'England' in marks denotes a date after 1891, although some manufacturers (Thomas Elsmore & Sons for example) added the word slightly before this date. It was William Mc Kinley (the 25th president of the USA) who introduced the highly protectionist Mc Kinley Tariff Act of 1890 - this imposed tariffs on many imports (including pottery) in order to make it easier for the American manufacturers to sell their products.It was a requirement of this Act that all such imports carried the name of the country of manufacture.There was a simple reason for this seemingly Draconian behaviour in that the manufacture of silver and gold was allied to the minting of currency.Sometimes called the Sterling Mark, the lion passant, the mark for Made in England, first appeared on English silver and gold in 1544.A false silver hallmark has always been treated with the utmost severity by the law and in the past a silversmith was pilloried for their first offence, where they would be pelted with rotten fruit and vegetables.If they offended again, a limb would be hacked off and, until the 1720’s, the death penalty was the usual sentence meted out to persistent offenders.In that year, a decree by Edward I laid down that silver or gold could not be made or sold unless it was marked by the leopard’s head or The King’s Mark, as it was then known.This mark became crowned in 1478 and remained crowned until 1821.Dating early Derby is slightly more difficult than the more modern Royal Crown Derby, but dating Derby porcelain is much easier than many of the early English porcelain factories. Nottingham Road from 1756 to 1848 King Street from 1848 to 1935 And; Osmaston Road from 1877 to modern times.In 1775, George III granted Derby Porcelain the right to incorporate the crown into the Derby backstamp. William Duesbury fully acquired the famous Chelsea Works factory in 1770 and the Chelsea anchor mark and Derby ‘D’ were merged to form the Chelsea-Derby mark.